HNDR.ME

A nerd pretending to be a software engineer.

Events in C#

Written on

Alright, last time I posted about Delegate, and together with event, they are one of the most important concept to understand in event driven application framework, such as WPF, Silverlight, and Silverlight for WP7, and maybe even WinRT as well (I haven’t tried it), so I believe it is important to understand how it work, especially when these two are pretty closely related.

I find the explanation on MSDN is pretty easy to understand, Event is a way for a class to provide notifications to clients when something interesting happens. Event is declared with a delegate, in fact, there aren’t much difference between a regular delegate and an event. Here is an example of an event declaration.

// declare the delegate
public delegate void SomethingHappenedEventHandler(object sender,EventArgs e);

// On the class that has the event
public class SomeClass
{
    public event SomethingHappenedEventHandler SomethingHappened;
}

It indeed looks like a regular delegate declaration, and indeed, it is indeed very similar to a regular delegate, and the ‘event’ keyword is something that we can think of like a modifier, which makes the delegate to behaves a little bit different. The first difference is, a delegate with an event modifier can be included in an interface, where a regular delegate can’t. The second one is, a delegate with an event modifier can only be called from within the class, but it can be changed/assigned to other method that handle the event, where a regular delegate can be called by whoever that can access it.

Finally, like what I mentioned on my previous post, event delegate must conform to a special restriction, where it must return void, and accepts two arguments, an object that invoke the event, and the information regarding the event that is derived from the EventArgs class, but this is a restriction placed by the .NET framework instead of the C# language itself, so, .NET framework has provided a delegate that can be used for this, the EventHandler. So, if your event doesn’t provide any additional data that what is provided by the EventHandler, it is better to just use the provided delegate. If you do need to pass additional data, you can just inherit the EventArgs class and provide additional infomation in the class. There are some others differences between the two, but I think those are too advanced and not too relevant in practical usage.

Since event is basically a delegate, a firing event is actually just an invocation of the method that the delegate points to, which we usually refer to as handling the event. So, in GUI programming, we often see this:

Button x = new Button();
x.Click += new RoutedEventHandler(x_Click);

That means, somewhere in the Button class declaration, they have an event of RoutedEventHandler delegate, and will be called when the the necessary condition is fulfilled. Something like this:

public delegate void RoutedEventHandler(object sender,m RoutedEventArgs e);

public class Button
{
    public event RoutedEventHandler Click;
    public void checkCondition()
    {
        if(mouseOnButton && mouseUp)
        {
            if(Click != null)
                Click();
        }
    }
}

Of course, it is not actually implemented like that, but I hope it can give you the idea. Maybe the button class will call the checkCondition periodically, and check if it fulfill the condition to detect a mouse click, if it does, it will call the Click delegate, which will invoke the method that it points to, where in our example, will call the x_Click() method which we assigned previously using the += operator. In this case, we call the Button class the event provider, and the class that implemented the event handler, the event listener/subscriber.

We can also see that the mouse click event uses a subclass of the EventArgs class, which may provide additional information of the event, such as the time it was triggered, etc. For example, the RoutedEventArgs class have a property called Handled that indicate whether the event is to be marked handled.

References:

This entry is posted in 2012.

comments powered by Disqus